• April 20, 2024

MCA Fifth Semester Model Papers

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MCA Third Semester Model Papers

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MCA First Semester Model Papers

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MSC (Biotechnology) Previous Year Model Papers

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MSC (Biotechnology) Final Year Model Papers

Faculty: Science 2019 Sample Papers with Solutions Sr. No.  Paper Name  Question Paper Link  Solution Link 1  Plant Biotechnology  Click Here  Click Here 2.  Genetic Engineering  Click Here  Click Here

Paramedical Services are those services which assist medical professionals (doctors) in one or many forms. Paramedical professionals support the medical team with closely related functions for complete diagnosis and treatment. In other words, we can say that paramedical science is the backbone for medical sciences because right diagnosis of diseases is necessary to prevent fatal diseases. Thus, medical Science will be paralyzed without paramedical science. Paramedical professionals supplement the work of doctors in specialized areas for facilitating diagnosis, treatment or therapy. The charm of the medical profession, of being able to alleviate suffering, has always enthused young people. However, the bottle neck in medical college admissions arising out of a disproportionate demand of seats, as well as rigorous and long medical education has attracted attention to paramedical hi3s. Due to population growth, urbanization trends, and the general aging of the population-as the population gets older (and more likely to specialized fields with extremely sophisticated equipments and assist medical practitioners in their work by carrying out diagnostic investigations.

Specialization and Nature of Work
Physiotherapy is a branch of medical science, which is concerned with the assessment, evaluation and treatment of physical disability, pain resulting from injury, disease or other health and movement related problems. The Physiotherapist with the help of exercises, massages and other electrotherapy modalities helps the patient to recover and deal with his/her difficulties.
Pharmacy: A pharmacist’s job is to prepare, mix-compound, or dispense drugs and medicines, ointments, powders, pills, tablets and injections on the prescription of a medical practitioner, dentist or veterinarian.
Nursing: It is one of the most well-known paramedical professions and forms a vital part of medical care. In the hospital, from general ward to the operation theatre, nursing is the most important component of patient care. It involves providing comfort. Hygiene, administering prescribed medication for the successful recovery of the patient.
Occupational therapy: it focuses on helping individuals with mental or physical illness/disability to come back to normalcy. Occupational therapist uses various methods like recreational, creative and educational activities in the treatment of their patients to assist them in maximum recovery and becoming normal after a prolonged disabling illness.
Audiology and Speech Therapy: Audiology is the study of hearing disorders. These professionals treat people who are unable to speak or hear clearly. Speech therapist uses special instruments as well as written and oral test to determine the nature and extent of impairment and to record and analyze speech disorders and work towards improving the patient’s communication skills.
Medical Technology: Medical technologist examines and analyzes body fluids, tissues, blood typing, microorganisms, screening, chemical analyses, cell counts etc. of the human body. They collect the information needed for treating most pathology cases by sampling, testing analyzing and reporting such investigations.
Radiography: Radiographers take x-ray films of body parts used in diagnosing medical problems. The conduct the x-raying of the patient’s body, makes the exposure, and then develops the x-ray film. This helps the doctors in diagnosing the disease and suggesting effective treatment.
Prosthetics and Orthotics : With the help of specifically made limb parts (prosthetics and orthotics) made by these professionals, Prosthetics and orthotics) made by these professionals, Prosthetics and Orthotists help rehabilitate physically handicapped individuals who have lost certain limbs due to accidents, genetic defects or other medical reasons. They also spend time teaching the patient and their families on use and maintenance of these parts.
Optometry : The optometrist’s work to provide complete vision care, and he/she does so by testing, diagnosing, designing and fitting lenses to restore proper vision. They also prescribe vision therapy eye exercise to the patient

Personal Attributes:
The work requires a scientific bent of mind, liking for machines and technical equipment and the ability to plan, organize, keep schedules and satisfy patients. Paramedics must be able to take orders from superiors and assist them by reporting observations they make with patients.
As this is a team work, so they should have a blend of qualities like sense of responsibility & dedication, good communication skill, analytical and logical reasoning skill, ability to recall and memorize scientific facts, patience, cool temperament, understanding of people, and an ability to instill confidence in the patient. In general, work of paramedics is demanding and unpredictable, requiring physical stamina, manual dexterity, emotional stability, compassion, good judgment, good judgment, and the ability to react quickly under stressful conditions. Night and weekend work is often required, and many are on call for emergencies.

Employment Opportunities
Due to population growth, urbanization trends, and the general aging of the population –as the population gets older (and more likely to have medical emergencies), the demand for highly trained professionals increases.

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Physiotherapy alias physical therapy, one of the fastest-growing allied areas of medicine, is the system of treatment of disease and disability using physical exercises. Physiotherapy is a branch of medical science in which diseases/disabilities are treated with the help of physical means/agents e.g. exercise, electrical equipments like Muscle Stimulator, SWD etc, different types of rays like Infra-red, Ultraviolet rays etc. It involves the assessment, maintenance, restoration of the physical function and performance of the body and is strongly recommended for people with degenerative disorders, the physically challenged, sports people and those suffering from arthritis and neurological disorders. This preventive and remedial procedure is very often used as a supplement with oral medicines. Its is the most important rehabilitative service needed to treat most patients and a vital therapeutic supplement of the medical profession.
Physiotherapists are as essential as doctors in helping to recover and rehabilitate a patient from a state for incapacity, due to genetic defect or the result of an accident or an illness. They must have a thorough knowledge of the human anatomy and the way the bones, muscles and nerves move. Physiotherapists treat a wide range of ailments, so specialization is possible in areas such as pediatrics, geriatrics, orthopedics, sports physical therapy, neurology, and clinical electro physiological and cardiopulmonary therapy.

Nature of Work
The job of a physiotherapist, is preventive, restorative and rehabilitative, is challenging and lucrative at the same time. He assesses diagnoses and treats people whose movements are restricted by injury, illness or age. Individuals in the physiotherapy hi3 study their patient’s history and physical condition in dealing with the movement disorders. They use a range of treatments including exercises, manipulation, massage, different electrotherapy modalities e.g. ultrasound, electrical stimulation and deep heat. It could also include heat radiation, water therapy, massages, diathermy, traction and other procedures. Physiotherapists trace the roots of these problems to certain conditions of particular parts of the human body such as the brain, nervous system, soft tissues, joints, bones, heart or lungs. When patients have movement disorders, they are usually advised by their physicians to consult a physiotherapiust. The work of a physiotherapist may tend to be physically very strenuous as it involves physically lifting and supporting patients; their profession brings with it much satisfaction, since it involves relieving patients of pain and helping them recover from specific physical ailments.

Personal Attributes
A Physiotherapist should have personal qualities like tolerance, compassion, ability to work independently or in a team, excellent item management skills, interest in people, good communication and listening skills, patience and empathy, physical fitness and good general mental health, problem solving skills, responsible and mature attitude towards the needs of patients. Physiotherapy is teamwork so a physiotherapist should be able to build up a rapport with patients, is equally important to maintain communication with their relatives as well as Rehabilitation Professionals like Occupational therapists, General Practitioners, Health visitors, Nurses and Social workers. Physiotherapy personnel should have qualities like positive attitude, ability to instill confidence and courage in patients, strength of mind and purpose, good powers of observations, and a sympathetic approach towards the patients.

Employment Opportunities
Physiotherapists can treat a wide range of disorders, they are highly in demand today making hi3 in physiotherapy very attractive. Physiotherapists may find work in various places like Centers for physically and mentally challenged people. Community health centers, Industries, Center and state Government sectors/hospitals, Mental Health centers, Nursing Homes or private care centers, Private and Public hospitals, Private practices, Rehabilitation centers, Sports clinics and fitness centers, Universities and Colleges. There is great scope for physiotherapists in defense medical establishments. Physiotherapists can also make hi3 in teaching. Those who have adequate capital can establish private clinics of their own.

How to Enter
After 10+2 with PCB stream a student can do Undergraduate programs in Physiotherapy.

Course Eligibility Duration
Bachelor of Physiotherapy 10+2 with biology, physics and chemistry 4 Year
Diploma in Physiotherapy 10+2 with PCB 2 Years

• In some Institutions the duration of BPT is 4 ½ years.
List of Some Institutions

Name Address Website
Biyani Nursing College Vidhyadhar Nager,Jaipur www.infectednursingcollege.com
Guru Govind Singh Indraprastha University Sector-16-C, Dwarka,Delhi www.ipu.ac.in
Christian Medical College Vellore-632004 www.cmch-vellore.edu
Christian Medical College Ludhiana 141008, Punjab www.cmcludhiana.org
Institute of Rehabilitation Medicine & Allied Science FC-31, Sheikh Sarai, Insttituion Area-II, Press Enclave  Road N-Delhi www.ipuniversity.com/irmas.asp
Jamia Hamdard (University) Hamdard Nagar New Delhi-110062 www.jamiahamdard.ac.in
Dr.B.R. Ambedkar University Paliwal Park,Agra www.dbrau.ac.in
University of Pune Ganeshkhind, Pune-411007 www.unipune.ac.in
Rajiv Gandhi University of Health Science 4th T Block Jayanagar, Banglore-560041 www.rguhs.ac.in
National Institute for the Orthopedically Handicaped B.T.Road, Bon-Hoogly Kolkata-700090 www.nioh.in
Pt. Deendayal Upadhaya Institute for the Physically Handicapped 4,  Vishnu Digamber, Marg New-Delhi-110002 www.iphnewdelhi.in
Madras Medical College and Government General Hospital E.V.R Periyar Salai, Park Town, Chennai -600003q www.mmc.tn.gov.in
Jiwaji University Gwailior MP www.jiwaji.edu
Indian Institute of Health Education & Research Health Institute Road, Beur,Pataliputara (patna) www.bramc.org
Dr.B.R.Ambedkar Medical College Shampura Main Road, Kadugondanahalli,Bengaluru,Karnataka-560045 www.bramc.org
M.S.Ramaiah Medical College MSR Nagar MSRIT Post Banglore-560054 www.msrdc.ac.in
Manipal University Manipal.edu,Manipal 576104, Karnataka www.manipal.edu
University of Calicut Malappuram Dt.Kozhikode, Kerla www.universityofcalicut.info/
Banarsi Das Chandiwala Institute of Physiotherapy Chandiwala Estate, Anandmai Ashram Marg, Kalkaji, New Delhi-19 www.bcip.ac.in
Dr. M.V.Shetty Memorial Trust A.B.Shetty Circle Mangalore Karnataka www.drmvst.ac.in
NTR University of Health Science Vijaywada, Hyedrabad http://59.163.116/210
S.N.D.T Women’s University 1, Nathibai Thackersey Road, Mumbai 400020 http://sndt.digitaluniversity.ac
Sri Ramachandra University Porur, Chennai-600116 www.srmc.edu
The Tamilnadu Dr. M.G.R.Medical University 69, Anna Salai, Guindy, Chennai, Tamilnadu www.tnmmu.ac.in
Occupationa Therapy
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It focuses on helping individuals with mental or physical illness/disability ot come back to normalcy. Occupational theraopist uses various methods in the treatment of their patients to assist them in maximum recovery and becoming norma after a prolonged disabling illness. This type of therapy is patient specific, involving recreational,creative or educational activities. The goal of occupational therapy is to maximize the ability of each individual to perfom self-care, work and leisure activities to the best of their physical, emotional and cognitive abilities; to help people re-learn skills needed to live independent, productive and satisfying lives. An Occupational Therepist often works in conjunction with other professionals as part of a team. The physician and the patient are part of that team as well.Nature of Work
Occupational Therapists help persons having physical, mental development and emeotinal disabling conditions. They help patients to identify imbalances in Their lives and suggest activites to deal with them. Occupatinal therapiest area of work includes giving customized treatment programs for specific disabilities, evaluating home and work environment and giving recommendations for necessary adaptiation Recommending adaptive equipments for permanent/temporary loss of functions such as whell chairs, splints, aids for eating and dressing needed for the patient and training them in its use, as well as teaching the caregivers how to take care of the patient also part of this job profile.Personal Attributes
A Person should have the sense of serving others with a helping and caring attitude. He should hav an eye for details with precision. He should also have a scientific bent of mind and a liking for machines and equipments.He should be emapathic towards the patients and to care givers too. He shold have good communication skills and be able to build rapport with the clients to elicit the best results. Ability to work hard with logical bent of mind and honesty is required. Alertness, willingness to work hard in odd hours and team spirit are other prerequisites.

Employment Opportunities
Occupational Therapists have multiple hi3 options in medical and fitness arenas. They can work in hospitals, private clinics, health centres, polyclinics, rehabilitation centers and psychiatric institutions. Special schools, community mental health centers, residential care facilities adult daycare programs and sprots team are also preferred places for Occupational Therapists NGOs are also a good optio for these professionals. Occupational therapists have ample opportunities for self-employment. They can work independently for providing helath care facility to household and schools. They may also be involved in ergonomic consultations in industries and work places and architectural arenas for greater accepesisbility by the diabled.

How to Enter
After 10+2 with PCB a student can do an Undergraduate program in Occupational Therapy.

Course Eligibility Duration
Bachelors Degree Occupationa Therepay 10+2 with PCB 4 Yrs
Christian Medical College Vellore -632004 www.cmch.vellore.edu
Guru Gobind Singh Indraprasth University Sect-16 c Dwarka Delhi www.ipu.ac.in
Indian Instt of Health Education & Reaserach Health Instt Road Beur, Patliputra www.iiher.org
Jamia Hamdard University Hamdard Nagar, New Delhi-110062 www.jamiahamdard.ac.in
Manipal University Manipa edu Manipal Karnataka www.manipal.edu
National Instt for the Orthopedically Handicapped B.T.Road Bon Hoogly Kolkata www.nioh.in
Pt. Deendayal Upadhyaa Instt for the Physically Handipped 4 Vishnu Digamber Marg, New delhi www.iphnewdelhi.in
Seth GS Medical College and KEM Hospital Acharya Donde Marg Parel, Mumbai www.kem.edu
The Tamilnadu Dr. M.G.R. Medical University 69- Anna Salai,.Guindy Chennai Tamilnadu www.tnmmu.ac.in
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Pharmacy is the health profession that links the health sciences with the chemical sciences and it is charged with ensuring the safe and effective use of pharmaceutical drugs. A pharmacist is an expert who performs functions such as compounding and dispensing medicines according to the prescriptions made by doctors, dentists and veterinarians and providing the patients with important information about the medications. The main function of a pharmacist is to explain the mode of taking a medicine and the precautions, contradictions and incompatibilities that must be kept in mind while taking a medicine. Pharmacists study the chemistry of drugs, their origin, and procedures for drug development, their preparation, dispensing, their effects and eventual use for prevention and treatment of disease. The complexity of drug therapy and the dangers of drug abuse have brought into focus the need of pharmacists’ special skills and education to maintain a firm control in the realm of drug treatments. A fast growing sector, pharmacy is second only to IT, with a 15% annual growth rate and exports crossing Rs. 12,000 crore. Jobs in the pharmaceutical industry range from those in sales and marketing to high-end specialist R&D jobs

Area Nature of Work
Community Pharmacists work closely with the medical practitioner and the general public. The pharmacists make up the medicine according to the doctor’s prescription, as well as on their own initiative. Pharmacists check the prescribed dosage, see to it that the safety margins are not exceeded and that different medicines that are prescribed together, do not interfere with each other’s function’s, since some medicines cannot be taken together. Pharmacists advise patients concerning their health. They also advise their patients as well as monitor the health and progress of those patients to ensure that they are using their medications safely and effectively.
Wholesalers’pharmacy/manufacturing industry Pharmacists in this industry are responsible for controlling the production of medicine. It involves checking all ingredients, and checking the procedures that are used in the manufacture of medicine. New products are constantly developed and tested to ensure that they are safe and effective. The pharmacists also perform some administrative tasks, such as the preparation of information about new products for submission to the Medical Control Board, the provision of information to physicians, and the planning and marketing of products.
Hospital Pharmacy Hospital pharmacists are employed by a private or state hospitals, where they are responsible for routine dispensing of medicine, surgical material and instruments, as well as administrative duties of the hospital.
Research and training Pharmacists can also be involved with training and research at various training institutions. They can handle the job of monitoring the conduct of clinical trails that are done on human volunteers. It is their responsibility to see that the clinical trials are carried out as per the international guidelines.

Personal Attributes
Natural inclination for science and medicine is the basic requirement for a hi3 in this professional of medical services. Those who are involved in research work need to have excellent academic background. Accuracy, carefulness and methodical approach are must for a candidate working in labs, medical stores and hospitals. Candidates who want to work as sales representatives or production in-charge in pharmaceutical industry need to have good communication skills. Merchandising and selling skills are the other requirements from a professional in retail sector. The prospective pharmacist must be hardworking and motivated. Accuracy, responsibility and good interpersonal relationships are also important. Sympathetic attitude, caring mannerisms and a friendly disposition and required for dealing with patients

Employment Opportunity India has a vast and growing pharmaceutical industry. Increasing number of hospitals, nursing homes and pharmaceuticals companies all over the country is a clear indication of the growing scope n this area. One can get job opportunities in hospital, universities, laboratories, and research and development institutes. Teaching is possible after they graduate in pharmacy. Various Government departments such as the Health and the Welfare Department, the Department of National Defense, the Pest Control Division, Agricultural Division hire pharmacists for various specific jobs. Apart from this, Pharmacists are also employed in the chemical industry and food and drug control organizations.
A large number of those who do pharmacy go on to become medical sales representatives. Of course if one is enterprising, one can open their own chemist shop or even go into manufacture of drugs or cosmetics. Other opportunities lie in the following areas.

Quality Assurance Health Manager: The Pharmacy graduate can play an important role in the development of clinical care plans, can investigate adverse medication events and in some cases can suggest preventive measures.
Medical Transcription:- The B Pharm graduate can work with medical practitioners to maintain the patient treatment history , the drug to which he/she is allergic etc. and can work as medical transcriptions.
Sales and Marketing:- Ambitious achievers with pleasant personality and good communication skills can opt for the job of Medical Sales Representative. The companies prefer pharmacy graduates for this job, as they have a good knowledge about the drug molecules, their therapeutic effects and the drug-drug interactions.
Regulatory Manager- A pharmacy graduate can work as “Regulatory Manager”(RM) in companies and contract research organization. As RM he has to oversee regulatory documentation such as Clinic trial approval permission, marketing approval permission etc. Since they have a good knowledge of therapeutic effects of drugs and that of drug-drug interaction, they are more suitable for a job in clinical research.

How to Enter
After 10+2 with PCB stream a student can do an Undergraduate prgoramme in Pharmacy.

Course Eligibility Duration
Bachelor of Pharmacy (B.Pharm) 10+2 pass Physics, Chemistry, Mathematics or Biology 4 Years
Diploma in Pharmacy (D.Pharm) 10+2 pass Physics, Chemistry, Mathematics or Biology 2 Years

List of some Institutions

Name Address Website
Institute of Medical Sciences Banaras Hindu University Varanasi-221 005 (U.P.P www.imsbhu.nic.in
University of Pune Ganeshkhind, Pune-411007 www.unipune.ac.in
Guru Gobind Singh Indraprastha University Sector-16C. Dwarka, Delhi www.ipu.ac.in
Jamia Hamdard (Hamdard University) Hamdard Nagar, New Delhi-110 062 www.jamiahamdard.ac.in
Goa University Telegao Plateau, Goq-403 206 www.unigoa.ac.in
University of Calicut Malappuram Dt.Kozhikode, Kerala www.universityofcalicut.info/
Institute of Post Graduate Teaching & Research in Ayurveda Gujarat Ayurved University, Jamngar-361008 Gujarat www.ayurveduniversity.ac.in
Rajiv Gandhi University of Health Sciences 4th T Block Jayanagar Bangalore-560 041 www.rguhs.ac.in
Sri Ramchandra University Porur, Chennai-600 116 www.srmc.edu
Madras Medical College and Government General Hospital E.V.R. Periyar Salai, Park Town, Chennai-600 003 www.mmc.tn.gov.in
Pushpagiri Institute of Medical Sciences and Research Centre Tiruvalla-689 101 www.pushpagiri.in
The Tamilnadu Dr.M.G.R. Medical University 69, Anna Salai, Guindy, Chennai Tamilnadu www.tnmmu.ac.in
Sardar Bhagwan Singh Post Graduate Institute of Biomedical Science & Research Balawala, Dehradun, Uttarakhand-248161 www.sbspgi.edu.in
Sri Vasavi Institute of pharmadceutical Sciences Pedatadepalli, Tedepalligudem, West Godavari Dist A.P.-534101 www.andhrauniversity.info
Seth GS Medical College and KEM Hospital Acharya Donde Marg, Parel, Mumbai-400 012 www.kem.edu
Shivaji University Vidyanagar, Kolhapur-416 004 Maharashtra www.unishivaji.ac.in
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If you love helping other’s you are truly passionate about the human spirit, and really want to make a difference in the lives of others, if you are very hard-working ,have an excellent attention to detail, and are able to analyze data and the patient’s behavioral cues nursing may be a good option for you. The nursing profession, comprising of nursing assistants constitutes the largest working group in the health care sector. It is the art of caring for sick people with the science of health care. As with many hi3s in the healthcare industry, nursing offers very high job stability, as well as wide variety of options in terms of schedules, locations, and levels of responsibility. Also, many nurses like the rewarding nature of nursing work, which allows them to truly impact the lives of others who are most in need of assistance. In India, the hi3 prospects in nursing are increasingly high. More and more numbers of nursing school/colleges are being opend to meet the growing demand of professional nurses in hospitals–whether private government.

Nature of Work
Nurse work closely with physicians as an integral part of the patient health care team. The doctor makes some key decisions about the diagnosis, treatment, and medication, and it is the nurse’s role to administer that care on an ongoing basis to ensure successful recuperation of the patient. Because they may actually spend more face-to-face time with a patient than doctors, nurses must be particularly adept at interacting with patients, putting them at ease, and assisting them in their recovery, and overall well-being. Nurse are involved with nearly all aspects of a patient’s care,from providing comfort and hygiene to administering injections and IV’s, updating medical records, as well as minor therapeutic and diagnostic procedures and processes and if required. Schedules and duties vary based on the type and level of nursing role.
Nursing duties depends on the level of qualification and the working environment. At the initial level, nurse are required for the bedside care of patients, while at senior level they are required to manage special groups of people like psychiatric, pediatric, intensive care patients etc which require specialized skills. They are also involved in dispensing medication keeping records of the patient’s progress, setting up and operating medical equipment, administration and several other routine chores.


Area Nature of Work
Hospital Nursing Hospital nurses form the largest group of nurses. Hospital nurses are usually assigned to any special area of work such as surgery, maternity, intensive care, pediatrics, obstetric, rehabilitation etc.
Public Health/Community Health Nurses Public health nurses/Health workers work in government and private clinics and health departments in urban and rural areas to provide basic medical services to the local population. They instruct individuals, families and other groups in health education, disease prevention, nutrition and child care. They arrange for immunizations, blood pressure testing and other health screening.
Military Nursing Provide health care services in armed forces
Education This field combines nursing with teaching of students of nursing and administration of educational programs
Industrial/Occupational Nursing They work under the direction of the industrial physicians and assist in taking preventive safety measure. They provide emergency care at the time of accidents taking place inside the industrial premises.
Psychiatric Nursing Concerned with the care of sick babies and children
Orthopedic Nursing Requires a knowledge of physiotherapy and rehabilitation.

Personal Attributes
Nurses work with precious human lives therefore, the fundamental requirements of this profession are a well-developed sense of moral responsibility. Nursing requires reliability, thoroughness, self-discipline, adaptability and a willingness to serve others. It requires kindness, consideration, tactfulness and acceptance towards others.
The job requires a lot of hard work, stamina, alertness of mind, adaptability to follow difficult time schedules, ability to think in crisis, good team spirit etc. Apart from possessing these qualities, the persons willing to take up this as profession, should be calm,pleasant, cheerful, compassionate, understanding and should have the instinct to help and serve the needy people without getting sentimentally attached. Sound health, power of observation, ability to take decisions and handling of responsibilities are some of the other personality attributes.

Employment Opportunities
The demand for skilled, qualified nurses is ever present throughout the world. As the government plans to widen the health services network, the demand for this profession would continue to grow. Nowadays even the corporate are entering this sector,further making this profession an exciting hi3 option. It is estimated that there would be a demand of around 6 lakh nurses in the near future to improve the existing nurse-patient ratio, which is very low and unsatisfactory at present in India. The employment opportunities in this profession are available in government and private hospitals, nursing homes, sanatoriums, clinics, creches, schools, offices, factories, old age homes and NGOs’ working on health issues etc. With increasing health consciousness in India, the quality of health services has improved. Skills and specialized nurse are in high demand by the health organization and in defense organizations.

How To Enter
After 10+2 with PCB a student can do an Undergraduate program in Nursing

Course Eligibility Duration
B.Sc. in nursing 10+2 with Biology,Physics and Chemistry 4 Yrs
Diploma in General Nursing & Midwifery 10+2 with Biology,Phys, and Chem. 3 1/2 years

List of some Institution

Name Address Website
University of Pune Ganeshkhind,Pune-411007 www.unipune.ac.in
All India Institute of Medical Science Ansari Nagar,New Delhi www.imsbhu.nic.in
Institute of Medical Science Banaras Hindu University Varanasi up www.imsbhu.nic.in
Christian Medical Science Vellore-632004 www.cmch-vellore.edu
Christian Medical College Ludhiana 141008,Punjab www.cmcludiana.org
Banglore Medical College and Research Instt. Fort, K R. Road Bangore 560002 www.bmcri.org
Armed Forces Medical College Wanowrie, Pune-411040 www.bmcri.org
JamiaHamdard University Hamdard Nagar -110062 www.jamiahamdard.ac.in
Guru GovindsinghIndraprasth University Sector-16C, Dwarka Delhi www.ipu.ac.in
Rajiv Gandhi University of Health Science 4th T block JayanagarBanglore 560041 www.rguhs.ac.in
Jiwaji University Gwalior (MP) www.jiwaji.edu
Jawaharlal Institute of Postgraduate Medical Education Research Institution of National Importance Dhanvantari Nagar Punduchery-605006 www.jimper.edu/
Dr.M.V. Shetty Memorial Trust A.B.Shetty Circle Manglore Karnataka www.drmvst.ac.in
Madras Medical College and Government G Hospital E.V.R. PeriyarSalai Park Town Chennai-600003 www.mmc.tn.gov.in
Shivaji University Vidyanagar, Kolhapur 416004 Maharashtra www.unishivaji.ac.in
Sri Ramchandra University Porur Chennai 600116 www.srms.edu
Pushpagiri Institute of Medical Science and Research Center Tiruvalla-689101,Kerala www.pushpagiri.in
St.John’s National Academy of Health Science SarjapurRoad,Banglore Karnataka state 560034 www.stjohns.in
The Tamilndau Dr. M G R Medical University 69-Anna SalaiGuindy, Chennai, Tamilnadu www.tnmmu.ac.in
S.N.D.T. Women’s University 1, NathibaiTahakersey Road,Mumbai-400020 http://sndt.digitaluniversity.ac
NTR University of Health Science VijaywadaHyedrabad
Prosthetics and Orthotics
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Prosthetics and Orthotics is a medical and engineering based healthcare profession which deals with rehabilitation f physically handicapped individual who suffer from limb malfunctions or abnormalities or absence or loss of limbs or other body parts. The loss of body part may have been the result of an accident or mishap or amputation owing to medical conditions like diabetes or gangrene or cancer or in some cases the defect may be congenital i.e., people are born with this handicap where a limb/ a body part may be missing. Such a condition prevents a person from leading a normal life. There may also be cases where people suffering from conditions like polio or muscular degeneration need an external support for movement and strength to go about their day to day activities.
The orthotics and prosthetic work directly with the physician and representatives of other allied health professions in the rehabilitation of the physically challenged. The orthotics designs and fits devices, known as orthoses, to provide care to patients who have disabling conditions of the limbs and spine. The prosthetist designs and fits devices, known as prostheses, for patients who have partieal or total absence of a limb.

Nature of Work
The role of the orthotics and prosthetics includes, but may not be limited to, five major domains: clinical assessment, patient management, technical implementation, practice management, and professional responsibility.
For starting with this profession, they have to work in a clinical team which compromises of physiotherapy, orthopedics, nurses and the associated medical professionals. For accurate fitting and fabrication of the prosthetics and orthotics, they have to take the measurement for making the aids. In order to create orthotics and prosthetics that are both well-fitting and functional, medical orthotics prosthetists examine patients’ disabilities, take measurements and make plaster moulds. Once the orthotics has been manufactured, they are fitted to the patient. Adjustments are made until both patients and orthotist prosthetists are fully satisfied with the results.
Orthotist prosthetists spend time instructing patient on the use for the orthotic prosthetics and teach the patient and families about the use and maintenance of the aids.

Personal Attributes
Prospective orthotist prosthetists should show a genuine interest in working with people with physical disabilities. They should show understanding when dealing with people and should be psychologically well adjusted with a positive approach towards life. An ability to inspire confidence is important. Biomechanical insight enables these professionals to design orthotics and prosthetics that are practical and successful. Practical skill is an indispensable quality,since a large part of their task involves the actual manufacturing of orthotics and prosthetics. Artistic skills are therefore also an advantage.

Employment Opportunity
This profession brings with it good opportunities and self practice facilities. Prosthetic and orthotic professionals may get posted as technologists, consultants or technicians those in teaching field can become Instructors and Lecturers. Some can join R&D cells of govt. organization and MNC’s as researchers. Trained professionals can also start their own manufacturing and maintenance units. These professionals can work in hospitals, clinics, laboratories, workroom and fitting rooms, device manufacturing companies, rehabilitation departments of hospitals and government agencies, ambulatory care services and special treatment facilities like arthritic centres.

How to Enter
After 10+2 with PCB a student can do an Undergraduate program in Prosthetics and Othotics

Course Eligibility Duration
Bachelors’ degree course in Prosthetics and Orthotics 10+2 with PCB 4 Years

List of some Instittutions

Rajiv Gandhi University of Health Science 4th T Block Jayanagar , Banglore -560041 www.rguhs.ac.in
National Institute for the Orthopedically Handicapped B.T.Road Bon-Hoogly Kolkata-700090 www.nioh.in
Safdarjang Hospital New Delhi-110026 www.vmmc.sjh.nic.in/
Indian Institute of Health Education & Research Health Institute Road ,Beur Pataliputra (Patna) www.iiher.org
National  Institute of Rehabilitation Training and Research Olatpur, P.O.Bairoi Distt. Cuttack Orissa-754010 http://nirtar.nic.in
Pt. Deendayal Upadhyaya Institute for The Physically Handicapped 4-Vishnu Digamber Marg, New Delhi-110002 www.iphnewdelhi.in/
All India Institute of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation Haji Ali, K khadye Marg, Mahalaxmi, Mumbai http://aiipmr.gov.in/
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Radiotherapy and electrotherapy are important tools in the treatment and diagnosis of a large number of diseases, including cancer, tumors, and ulcers. It is used in conjunction with most medical specialties, to diagnose problems in a variety of area within the human body,including the bran, heart, digestive system, and just about any organ or system within the body.
Radiography as a profession is gaining prominence. Radiography is a modern medical technology used to diagnose the aliment and diseases of the internal part of the body using X-Ray, Fluoroscopy, Ultrasound, CTscan, MRI, Angiography and PET technologies. It helps in getting a detailed image of internal body parts and their functioning By using this, a doctor can easily diagnose the disease and can suggest effective treatment procedure.
There are two hi3 choices in the field-Diagnostic Radiography and Therapeutic Radiography. The need for radiography professionals are increasing due to the fact that sophisticated newer machines are coming up and experts in this hi3 is less. Nature of Work

Area Nature of work
Diagnostic Radiographer Daignostic radiographers work mainly within the radiology department of hospitals but may also work in surgeries/clinics. Radiology departments within hospitals normally include a number of sections encompassing a wide range of different imaging investigations e.g. ultrasound, magnetic resonance imaging and X-rays. Diagnostic radiographers provide a service for most departments within the hospital including, Accident and Emergency, outpatients, operating theatres and wards. Close liaison and collaboration with a wide range of other health care professionals is therefore vital. Typically, radiographers can find themselves doing all sorts of different examinations-from X-rays to CT scanning.
Therapeutic Radiographer The therapeutic radiographer works closely with doctor, nurses ,physicists and other members of the oncology team to treat patients with cancer. Therapeutic radiographer treats patients using ionizing radiation(mostly high-energy x rays) The aim of the treatment is to deliver an accurate dose of radiation to the tumor/cancer whilst minimizing the dose received by the surrounding tissues. Therapeutic radiographers may be involved in the care of the cancer patient from the initial referral clinic stage, where pre-treatment information is given, through the planning process, treatment and eventually post-treatment review (follow-up)stage.

Personal Attributes
Radiographers should be mindful of their patient’s need s, both physical and emotional. A team player attitude, close attention to detail, and the ability to follow detailed instructions are essential attributes. Mechanical and manual aptitudes are also relevant skills because they must operate sophisticated diagnostic imaging equipment. It is good for them to have an understanding of the human anatomy and medical and scientific principles relating to human health. Additionally, radiographers should be technically savvy should be very focused, have excellent vision and a keen eye for detail.

Employment Opportunities
Employment opportunities for radiographers are good, both within the country as well as abroad. Increase in health services demand more radiographers in nursing homes, hospitals, diagnostic centers as well as super specialty hospitals. As more and more sophisticated machines are coming up in health care sector there is an increased for radiographers.
They are required in government as well as private hospitals. Self-employment opportunities are also available in this field. They can open their own diagnostic centers. Highly qualified persons can teach in medical colleges and institutes. Research activity options are also available to radiographers. Indian radiographers are in high demand especially abroad particularly Western European countries, USA and Gulf countries.

How To Enter
After 10+2 with PCB a student can do an Undergraduate course in Radiogrphy

Course Eligibility Duration
B.Sc degree in Radiography 10+2 with Bio.chem.,Phy. 3yrs
Certificate course in Radiography 10+2 with Bio,Chem,and phy 2 yrs

List of some Institutions

Name Address Website
Dr.B.R.Ambedkar Medical College Shampura Main Road Kadugondanahalli, Bengaluru,Karnataka-560045 www.bramc.org
Indira Gandhi Medical College Shimla-171001 www.igmcshimla.org
Kidwai Memorial inst.Of Oncology Hosur Road Banglore-560029 http://kidwai.kar.nic.in
Mohan Dai Oswal Cancer Treatment & Research Foundatin G.T.Road, Sherpur, Distt-Ludhiana, Punjab-141009 www.oswalcancerhospital.com
Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education Research Center Sector-05, Rohini, New -Delhi-110085 www.rgci.org/
University College of Medical Science Dilshad Garden Delhi-110095 www.ucms.ac.in
Audiology and Speech Therapy
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Audiology is the study of hearing disorders. These professionals treat people who are unable to hear clearly. Audiologists identify symptoms of hearing loss, auditory, balance and related sensory and neural problems by examining people of all ages. They are aided by specialized equipments like audiometers, computers and other testing devices to evaluate and estimate the impact of auditory and balance problems on the client’s daily life.
Speech therapists work with people who have speech disorders ranging from inability to produce sounds, speech rhythm and fluency problems and also those with swallowing disorders due to problems like cleft palate or other medical conditions which may be congenital, developmental or acquired.
As these professionals help people make their lives more productive and richer by improving people’s communication skills their hi3 is well respected and gives an opportunity to make a difference in the patient’s life.

Nature of Work
Speech and language therapist helps to identify, assess and treat people with communication disorder. Speech disorders can be the outcome of autism, emotional problems, childhood schizophrenia or other ailments. The growing awareness about treatments for those with speech disorders has increased the demand for these experts. Audiologist’s help people who have hearing, balance, and related ear problems. This problem may be a result of trauma at birth, viral infections, genetic disorders, exposure to loud noise, certain medications, or aging. Using various types of testing equipment, audiologists measure patient’s ability to hear and distinguish between sounds. In addition, they use computers to evaluate and diagnose balance disorders. Audiologists analyze these test data along with educational, psychological, and other medical patient data to make a diagnosis and determine a course of treatment.
Hearing is vital for communication through speech and language. Audiology and speech therapy are distinct disciplines, but are so interrelated that to be fully competent in either, one should be familiar with both. Both deal with speech, language and hearing impairments that disrupt at ability of the sufferer to communicate and interact in various social situations.

Personal Attributes
The job is not physically demanding but is emotionally demanding. The professionals must be able to approach problem objectively and provide support to patients and their families. As the patient’s progress is slow, patience, compassion and good listening skills are necessary. They must have experienced skills in observation, concentration and record keeping. Audiologist should be able to effectively communicate diagnostic test results, interpretation and proposed treatment in a manner easily understood by their patients, relatives and other staff.

Employment Opportunities
The job titles for professionals working in this field include Audiologist, Rehabilitation Counselor, Sign Language Interpreter Language Specialist, Linguist, Speech Pathologist etc. These professions provide essential services to people of all ages and backgrounds in developing the vital human skill that is communication.
Speech Therapists & Audiologists can work in hospitals, schools, and community health and welfare centres, private practice and even in industry (to monitor the effect of noise pollution). Those with Post Graduate qualifications can go for a teaching job or research positions. Opportunities for jobs are also available to audiologists in community care centres, community clinics, rehabilitation centres, and centres for disabled, nursing care facilities and clinics run by college and universities. Teaching in medical or para-medical colleges is also an option available to audiologists and speech pathologists.

How to Enter
After 10+2 with PCB a students can do an Under graduate programme in Audiology and speech Therapy.

Course Eligibility Duration
B.Sc. in Audiology 10+2 with PCB 4 Yrs*
B.Sc. programme in Speech/Language Therapy 10+2 with PCB 4 Yrs
Diploma in Hearing, Language and Speech (DHLS) 10+2 with PCB 1 Yrs

* In some institutes the duration of B.Sc. in Audiology is 4 ½ Years. List of some Institutions

Name Address Website
All India Institute of Speech and Hearing Manasgangothri Mysore-570006 www.aiishmysore
Indian Institute of Health Education & Research Health Institute Road, Beur, Patliputra (Patna) www.iiher.org
Guru Gobind Singh Indraprastha University Sector-16C,Dwarka, Delhi www.ipu.ac.in
University of Calicut Malappuram Dist.Kozhikode Kerala www.universityofcalicut.info
Dr.M.V. Shetty Memorial Trust A.B. Shetty Circle Mangalore-575001 www.drmvst.ac.in
Dr.S.R. Chandrasekhar Institute of Speech & Hearing Hennur edu, Manipal-576104 Karnataka www.manipal.edu
Sri Ramchandra University Porur, Chennai-600 116 www.srmc.edu
The Tamilnadu Dr. M.G.R. Medical University 69, Anna Salai Guindy, Chennai, Tamilnadu www.tnmmu.ac.in
NTR University of Health Science Vijaywada, Hyderabad http://59,163,116,210
MERF Institute of Speech & Hearing No.: 4/207-B, 7th Street, MGR Road, Palavakkam, Chennai-600 041 TN www.merfish.org
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Optometry is the art and science of eye and vision care. An optometrist is a primary health care professional with intensive skill & knowledge of the science of optometry, to provide complete vision care. The scope for optometric practice in India and abroad is great and unlimited. It is a dynamic and challenging hi3 which one could achieve personal growth, community respect and job flexibility, financial success and unlimited opportunities

Nature of Work
An optometrist is a doctor of optometry (O.D.), rather than a medical doctor. The optometrist is licensed to conduct eye exams, prescribe corrective contact lenses and glasses, and diagnose and treat eye disease. He or she works through various vision therapies to treat abnormalities, and can prescribe drugs for the eyes. They deal with vision screening (eye testing), diagnosis of visual problems, orthotics and vision training, optometric counseling of patients with partial sight, colour blindness and hereditary vision defects, and designing and fitting of spectacles, contact lens and low vision aids. They also prescribe Vision therapy eye exercises to patients complaining of Visual symptoms such as squint etc. If surgery is required, the patient is sent to an ophthalmologist (M.D.).

Personal Attributes
The sense of seeing others and being empathetic to the patients is the foremost requirement of this profession. The job of an optometrist involves working with lenses, which require high level of accuracy and precision. Scientific bent of mind, working with team and hard working nature will take a person long way in this profession.

Employment Opportunity
Optometrist has multiple hi3 options, Central and state governments recruit optometrist for hospitals run by them. Departmental hospitals run by Railways and Defence and hospitals run by PSU are also a good option available to Optometrist. However most of the optometrist prefers private hospitals, nursing homes and clinics because of high pay packages. Experienced optometrist also can start their own eye-clinics. Some of them also can work with NGOs, missionary hospitals and charitable hospitals. Highly qualified and experienced optometrist can work as faculty in government and private medical colleges. They also can involve themselves in research activities of organizations like ICMR. There is huge demand for Indian optometrist abroad particularly in USA, UK, and Australia and Gulf countries. With the opening or corporate hospitals like Apollo Hospital, Escorts Hospital etc, the scope for these professionals has increased tremendously.

How to Enter
After 10+2 with PCB a student can do an under graduate programme in Optometry

Course Eligibility Duration
Bachelor in Optometry and Vision Science 10+2 with PCM/PCB 4 Yrs*
B.Sc. (Hons) Ophthalmic Tech 10+2 with PCB 3 Yrs

*In some of the Institutes the Bachelor in Optometry in for 4 ½ Years.
List of some Institutions

Name Address Website
Manipal University Manipal.edu, Manipal576104 Karnataka ww.manipal.edu
NTR University of Health Science Vijaywada, Hyderabad http://59,163,116,210/
Rajiv Gandhi University of Health Sciences 4th T Block Jayanagar, Bangalore-560 041 www.rguhs.ac.in
Sri Ramchandra University Porur, Chennai-600 116 www.srmc.edu
The Tamilnadu Dr.M.G.R. Medical Universiity 69, Anna Salai, Guindy, Chennai, Tamil Nadu www.tnmmu.ac.in
Vidyasagar College of Optometry & Vision Science 220, Hossenpur, Kolkata-700 107 W.B. www.vcovs.org
West Bengal University of Technology BF 142, Sector 1, Salt Lake City, Kolkata 700 064, West Bengal www.wbut.ac.in
Medical Technology
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Laboratory tests have become increasingly important in the detection, diagnosis, and treatment of many illnesses and diseases. Medical laboratory technicians are also called clinical laboratory technicians who are highly skilled persons to performs routine laboratory procedures on blood, tissue, and other bodily fluids using instruments such as microscopes, chemicals, computers, and complex laboratory equipment. They play an important role in collecting the information needed for treating most pathology cases by sampling, testing, analyzing and reporting such investigations to generate vitally important data for identifying and treating cancer, heart disease, diabetes, and many other health conditions. Medical laboratory personnel work behind in the scenes, running the tests to help doctors diagnose illnesses and make decisions about patient treatments. They look for bacteria, parasites and other micro organisms. People in this field use sophisticated biomedical instrumentation and technology as well as highly skilled manual techniques to help in their diagnosis.

Nature of Work
Medical Technologist work in five major areas of the laboratory i.e. in Blood banking, Clinical chemistry, Hematology, Immunology and Microbiology. They also work in the areas of cytotechnology (study of human tissue), urinalysis, coagulation, parasitology and serology. They perform complex tests such as microscopic examinations of tissues, blood and other body fluids to detect evidence of disease and detect the presence of bacteria, fungi, parasites etc and perform chemical tests to determine blood cholesterol levels. They also match blood samples for transfusion and test drug levels in blood to determine how patients are responding to medications. They are often responsible for making sure that testing is done accurately. Technicians also have to set up as well as clean and maintain laboratory equipments.

Personal Attribute
Qualities required for a lab technician is the ability to conduct research, finish tasks with speed as well as with accuracy, to handle stress, make analytical judgments, interpret technical/scientific data, have knowledge of laboratory instrumentation and the ability to use computers for day to day functions. They should have an eye for detail, be self-sufficient, precise, dedicated and self motivated. They should have stamina as they much need to work a good deal of time standing. They exercise special care when handling infectious materials or dangerous chemicals.

Employment Opportunities
A laboratory technician may find jobs in hospitals, minor emergency centres, private laboratories, blood donor centers, doctor’s clinics etc. A technologist can advance to supervisory or management position in pathology labs and hospitals. They can also work as laboratory manager, consultant, or supervisor in health care administration. Teaching in medical colleges and institutions is also a very good option for them.

How to Enter
After 10+2 with PCB/PCM a student can do an under graduate programme in Medical Technology

Course Eligibility Duration
B.Sc. Medical Laboratory Technology B.Sc. – M.L.T. (BLMT). 10+2 with PCB/PCM 3 Yrs.

List of some Institutions

Name Address Website
All India Institute of Medical Science Ansari Nagar, New Delhi www.aiims.ac.in
Bangalore Medical College and Research Institute (BMCRI) Fort, K.R. Road, Bangalore-560 002 www.bmcri.org
Dr. M.V Shetty College of Medical Laboratory Technology Vidyanagar Kavoor Mangalore-575 013 www.drmvst.ac.in
Dr. B.R. Ambedkar Medical College Shampura Main Road, Kadugondanahalli, Bengaluru-560045 www.bramc.org
University College of Medical Sciences Dilshad Garden Delhi-110 095 www.ucms.ac.in
Guru Gobind Singh Indraprastha University Sector-16C, Dwarka,Delhi www.ipu.ac.in
Indian Institute of Health Education & Research Health Institute Road, Beur, Patliputra (Patna) www.iiher.org
Indira Gandhi Medical College Shimla-171 001 HP www.igmcshimla.org
Jamia Hamdard (Hamdard University) Hamdard Nagar, New Delhi-110 062 www.jamiahamdard.ac.in
Jawaharlal Institute of Postgraduate Medical Education & Research Institution of National Importance, Dhanvantri Nagar, Puducherry-605006 www.jjpmer.edu/
Jiwaji University Gwalior (M.P.) www.jiwaji.edu
Kidwai Memorial Inst. Of Oncology Hosur Road, Bangalore-560029 http://kidwai.kar.nic.in
Manipal University Manipal.edu, Manipal-576104 Karnataka www.manipal.edu
Mohan Dai Oswal Cancer Treatment & Research Foundation G.T. Road, Sherpur, Ludhiana-141009 Punjab www.oswalcancerhospital.com
NTR University of Health Science Vijaywada, Hyderabad http://59,163,116,210/
Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education & Research Centre Sector-12, Chandigarh-160012 www.pgimer.nic.in
Pushpagiri Institute of Medical Sciences and Research Centre Tiruvalla-689 101 Kerala www.puspagiri.in
Shivaji University Vidyanagar, Kolhapur-416004 Maharastra www.univshivaji.ac.in
St.John’s National Academy of Health Sciences Sarajpur Road Bangalore, Karnataka-560034 www.stjohns.in
The Tamil Nadu Dr. M.G.R. Medical University 69, Anna Salai, Guindy, Chennai, Tamil Nadu www.tnmmu.ac.in

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