What is Poliomyelitis & its Epidemiological factors, Clinical features and treatment.

Definition:-Poliomyelitis is a virus infection. It is primarily an infectious disease of the human alimentary tract, but may affect the brain, spinal cord & nerves resulting in paralysis.
Polio does not always cause paralysis.
Epidemiological factors:-
(1)Agents:- The causative agents is polio virus which has 3 serotypes designated as type1, type2& type 3. Type 1 is responsible for all major epidemics.
(2) Sources of infection:– Faeces mostly in young children
–Pharyngeal secretions
(3)Age:- The majority of cases contract polio between 1&2 years.
(4) Environmental conditions:– Overcrowding , poor sanitation,
rainy season, rural& urban areas.
(5) Mode of transmission:– Faecal-oral route by contaminated
Water,food or flies.
–Droplet infection from nasopharynx
(6)Incubation period:- 7-21 days (range 3-35 days)

Clinical Features:- 90% of cases are asymptomatic , about 8 % suffer from mild illness ,& 1-2 % are severely affected.
Other symptoms:-
• Fever
• Headache
• Diarrhea& vomiting
• Drowsiness
• Pain, weakness & stiffness of neck & back
• Paralysis of affected limb
Diagnosis Investigations:-
• Serological testing for polio viral antibiotics.
• X-ray
• Physical examination
(1)Polio can be prevented by active immunization of all infects & children.
(2) The vaccine widely used is oral polio vaccine (OPV) which is a Sabin type of vaccine.
(3)It can also be administered soon after birth.
(4)Hot milk & hot fluids should not be given for at least half an hour after the administration.
(5)Recent studies indicate that breast feeding does not impede the effectiveness of OPV.
(6) Breast milk can be given whenever the child Hungary.
(7) A point of great importance is that polio vaccine should be stored at sub – zero temperature in a deep freeze to prevent inactivation.
Strategies for polio eradication in India:-
(1) Conduct pulse polio immunization days every year until poliomyelitis is eradicated.
(2)Sustain high levels of routine immunization coverage.
(3)Monitor OPV coverage at district level & below
Key Words:-
(1) Pulse polio
(2) Vaccine
(4)sign & symptoms
(5)faecal route

Author: Swati Bankolia

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