• June 15, 2024

MCA Fifth Semester Model Papers

Faculty: IT 2019 Sample Papers with Solutions Sr. No.  Paper Name  Question Paper Link  Solution Link 1.  Cloud Computing  Click Here  Click Here 2.  Analysis & Design of Algorithm  Click Here …

MCA Third Semester Model Papers

Faculty: IT 2019 Sample Papers with Solutions Sr. No.  Paper Name  Question Paper Link  Solution Link 1.  Java Technologies  Click Here  Click Here 2.  Web Technologies  Click Here  Click Here 3. …

MCA First Semester Model Papers

Faculty: IT 2019 Sample Papers with Solutions Sr. No.  Paper Name  Question Paper Link  Solution Link 1.  Discrete Mathematics  Click Here  Click Here 2.  Programming in C & C++  Click Here …

MSC (Biotechnology) Previous Year Model Papers

Faculty: Science 2019 Sample Papers with Solutions Sr. No.  Paper Name  Question Paper Link  Solution Link 1  Immunology, Virology and Pathogenesis  Click Here  Click Here 2.  Cell Biology  Click Here  Click …

MSC (Biotechnology) Final Year Model Papers

Faculty: Science 2019 Sample Papers with Solutions Sr. No.  Paper Name  Question Paper Link  Solution Link 1  Plant Biotechnology  Click Here  Click Here 2.  Genetic Engineering  Click Here  Click Here


DEFINITION:- It is the collection of fluid in the pleural space. It is a type of primary disorder and due to this secondary sign and symptoms will occur.
TYPES:-
1. Transudate ( Hydrothorax)
2. Exudate

1. Transudate:-
In this type fluid passess through the membranes.
2. Exudate:-
It is a leakage of fluid from the blood vessels into the tissues.

TRANSUDATE occurs in non inflammatory condition. It is a process of accumulation of proteins poor, cell poor fluid which move across intact capilliaries walls. For eg.;- increased hydrostatic pressure in the congestive heart fauilure, decrease onchotic pressure in renal and liver disease.
Accumulation of fluids and cells in an area of inflammation for eg;- Any inflammatory condition , pulmonary malignancies, nephrotic syndrome occurs due to exudate condition.
PATHOPHYSIOLOGY:-
TRANSUDATE:-
Any alteration in the formation and reabsorbation of pleural; fluid due to imbalance in hydrostatic and onchotic pressure . It has low content of protein & the nature of fluid is clear & pale yellow./

EXUDATE:-
It occurs due to any inflammation and bacterial infection, tumors which causes exudation process . It has a high protein content & fluid is dark yellow & amber.

Pleural effusion

CLINICAL FEATURES:-
1. Pleuritic pain
2. Progressive dyspnea
3.Decreased cheast wall movement
4. fever
5. chills
6. Malignant effusion may result in dyspnea and coughing
7. Malaise
DIAGNOSTIC EVALUATIONS:-
1. Physical Examination
2. Pleural biopsy
3. Chest X-ray
4. Pleural fluid analysis
5. C T scan
6. Thoracentesis

MEDICAL MANAGEMENT:-
1. To discusss he underlying cause to prevent reaccumulation of fluid to relief discomfort &dyspnea are the purpose of management including thoracentessis aspiration through syringe.
2. Provide appropriate antibiotics
3. Provide diuretics therapy

NURSING MANAGEMENT:-
1. Take care of patient and prepare him for thoracentesis procedure
2. Reduce the pain by maintain the position &administering analgesics
3. Educate the patient & his family regarding care of drain tube if the client is an out patient.
4. Frequent turning of the patient position will facilitate drainage of the accumulation fluid.

TARUN MUDGAL

Author

Leave a Reply