DEFINITION:- It is the collection of fluid in the pleural space. It is a type of primary disorder and due to this secondary sign and symptoms will occur.
1. Transudate ( Hydrothorax)
2. Exudate

1. Transudate:-
In this type fluid passess through the membranes.
2. Exudate:-
It is a leakage of fluid from the blood vessels into the tissues.

TRANSUDATE occurs in non inflammatory condition. It is a process of accumulation of proteins poor, cell poor fluid which move across intact capilliaries walls. For eg.;- increased hydrostatic pressure in the congestive heart fauilure, decrease onchotic pressure in renal and liver disease.
Accumulation of fluids and cells in an area of inflammation for eg;- Any inflammatory condition , pulmonary malignancies, nephrotic syndrome occurs due to exudate condition.
Any alteration in the formation and reabsorbation of pleural; fluid due to imbalance in hydrostatic and onchotic pressure . It has low content of protein & the nature of fluid is clear & pale yellow./

It occurs due to any inflammation and bacterial infection, tumors which causes exudation process . It has a high protein content & fluid is dark yellow & amber.

Pleural effusion

1. Pleuritic pain
2. Progressive dyspnea
3.Decreased cheast wall movement
4. fever
5. chills
6. Malignant effusion may result in dyspnea and coughing
7. Malaise
1. Physical Examination
2. Pleural biopsy
3. Chest X-ray
4. Pleural fluid analysis
5. C T scan
6. Thoracentesis

1. To discusss he underlying cause to prevent reaccumulation of fluid to relief discomfort &dyspnea are the purpose of management including thoracentessis aspiration through syringe.
2. Provide appropriate antibiotics
3. Provide diuretics therapy

1. Take care of patient and prepare him for thoracentesis procedure
2. Reduce the pain by maintain the position &administering analgesics
3. Educate the patient & his family regarding care of drain tube if the client is an out patient.
4. Frequent turning of the patient position will facilitate drainage of the accumulation fluid.